What is Anal Cancer?
Cancer can occur when cells in the body grow abnormally. The uncontrolled and abnormal growth of cells in the anus leads to anal cancer. The various types of anal cancer are as follows:
Carcinoma (AA Bowen’s disease) in situ is a type of anal cancer in which the abnormal cells are formed in the internal surface layer of the anus, but do not grow in deep layers.
Invasive anal cancer:
- Squamous cell begins in carcinoma squamous cells, which underline the Anal Canal. These types of cancers grow in deep layers of the anal lining.
- Adenocarcinoma is transmitted in cells which underlines the upper layer of the anus near the anus.
What are the symptoms and symptoms of anal cancer?
Symptoms and symptoms of anal cancer include the following:
- Pain and discomfort in the anal area
- The rise of abnormal people in the ones
- Itching around the anus
- Haemorrhage from the anus or rectum
- Continuous redness around the anal area
- Formation of bumps in the groin area
- Abnormal discharge from the anus
What are the causes of anal cancer?
The primary cause of any cancer is a genetic mutation in the cell. This genetic mutation changes the function and development of a healthy cell, making it unusual. These abnormal cells collect and multiply without any control. Tumour cells can be formed as a result of the accumulation of abnormal cells. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and interfere in their normal activities. The most common causes of anal cancer include sexual infections such as human papillomavirus infection, compound immune function, and smoking.
What are the risk factors for anal cancer?
Factors that increase the risk of anal cancer include:
- Growing old
- Many sexual partners
- Female gender
- Due to the use of medicines or AIDS history, the immune system was reduced
- Anal sex
- History of other cancers like cervical cancer
What are the complications of anal cancer?
If the treatment is not done, then anal cancer can spread to other parts of the body. However, the risk of anal cancer metastasis is very small compared to other cancers. In some cases, anal tissue cancer cells invade lungs and liver.
How is anal cancer diagnosed?
Individuals who have risk factors and are at risk of developing anal cancer can be diagnosed with test tests, which include PAP testing or anal test. The doctor begins the diagnosis by reviewing the medical history and examining potential signs and symptoms.
If anal cancer is suspected then the therapist may recommend the following tests:
- Endoscopy – To identify any side effects of the body and to identify any anal symptoms that suggest anal cancer
- Anoscopy – to see the layer of the lower rectum and anus
Rigid proctosigmoidoscopy – To see the rectum and lower part of the sygodyd colon
- Biopsy – To check the sample below the microscope to remove the sample tissue from the anal canal
- Ultrasound – using the sound waves to get images of the inside of the anus
- Computed tomography scan – to get detailed cross-sectional images of the anus
In order to determine the extent of cancer, imaging studies such as computed tomography scan (CT-scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) are recommended. The anticipation and effect of treatment of anal cancer depend on the following:
- Tumour cell size
- Location of a tumour
How is anal cancer treated?
Anal cancer can be treated based on the following:
- Cancer phase
- Tumour Cells Locations
- Anal cancer that can be caused by human papillomavirus infection
- Cancer Recurrence
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs are given injected into nerves or taken verbally. Chemotherapy works by killing fast-growing tumour cells. Common side effects of chemotherapy include nausea, vomiting, and hair loss.
Radiation therapy: During radiation therapy, high-power X-ray beams are used to destroy cancerous cells. Side effects include skin rashes, a hardness of the anus canal and lesion around the anus.
Surgery: Different surgical techniques are used based on the stage of cancer. In the case of intercurrent anal cancer, the surgeon removes tumours and small parts of the surrounding healthy tissue.
How to stop anal cancer?
Currently, there is no way to stop anal cancer. However, the risk of developing anal cancer can be reduced by following specific measures:
The practice of Safe Sex – It helps in preventing sexually transmitted diseases like HPV and HIV, which can cause anal cancer.
Receiving Immunization Against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) – Gardasil and Servarks are two vaccines that protect against human papillomavirus (HPV) infections.
Keeping HIV infection under control by using drugs
Reasons for anal cancer and risk factors
We do not know what is the cause of most anal cancers, but many factors can increase your risk of developing the disease.
If you have one or more of the following risk factors, you are more at risk of anal cancer:
The most common risk factor is human papillomavirus (HPV), an infection that causes genital and anal warts.
The history of cervical or vaginal cancer, or abnormal cells of the uterus, is likely to be associated with HPV or smoking.
As a result of other condition or treatment for other diseases, less immune response which suppresses your immune system, such as HIV, or organ transplantation.
Smoking tobacco has been shown to increase the risk of developing many cancers including anusal cancer.
Being at the age of 50 years, and young adults with HIV infection.
Symptoms of anal cancer
Symptoms of anal cancer are similar to other problems, including haemorrhoid or anal fissure (tears). The most common symptom is blood in blood vessel bleeding or stool (Poo), almost half of all affected patients in this way.
Other symptoms include:
- Small nodes are seen or felt around the anus, which can be confused with the heap
- Increase the number or size of the heap
- Pain in the anal area – affects about 30% of people
- Difficulty in passing stool and extreme constipation are common symptoms
- With any production, possibly feeling the constant urge to pass the motion with increasing mucus
- Discharge from the back, or swelling, itching and persistent craving or pain around the anal area
- Difficulty in controlling your intestines (physic dissatisfaction)