What is a bone infection (osteomyelitis)?
Bone infections can happen suddenly or develop over a long period of time. If they’re not properly treated, bone infections can leave a bone permanently damaged.
Many organisms, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus, travel through the bloodstream and can cause a bone infection. An infection may begin in one area of the body and spread to the bones via the bloodstream.
Organisms that invade a severe injury, deep cut or wound can also cause infections in nearby bones. Bacteria can enter your system at a surgical site, such as the site of a hip replacement or bone fracture repair. When your bone breaks, bacteria can invade the bone, leading to osteomyelitis.
Usually, the first symptom to appear is a pain at the injection site. Other common symptoms are:
- fever and chills
- redness in the infected area
- irritability or generally feeling unwell
- drainage from the area
- swelling in the affected area
- stiffness or inability to use an affected limb
Your doctor may use several methods to diagnose your condition if you have any symptoms of a bone infection. They will perform a physical exam to check for swelling, pain, and discolouration. Your doctor may order lab and diagnostic tests to determine the exact location and extent of the infection.
It’s likely your doctor will order a blood test to check for the organisms causing the infection. Other tests to check for the bacteria are throat swabs, urine cultures, and stool analyses. The stool culture is an example of a stool analysis.
Another possible test is a bone scan, which reveals the cellular and metabolic activity in your bones. It uses a type of radioactive substance to highlight the bone tissue. If the bone scan doesn’t provide enough information, you may need an MRI scan. In some cases, a bone biopsy may be necessary.
There are several options your doctor may use to treat your bone infection.
Antibiotics may be all that’s necessary to cure your bone infection. Your doctor may administer the antibiotics intravenously, or directly into your veins if the infection is severe. You may need to take the antibiotics for up to six weeks.
Sometimes bone infections require surgery. If you have surgery, your surgeon will remove the infected bone and dead tissue and drain any abscesses, or pockets of pus.
There are a few conditions and circumstances that can increase your chances of osteomyelitis, such as:
- Diabetes disorders that affect the blood supply to the bones
- Intravenous drug use
- Hemodialysis, which is a treatment used for kidney conditions
- Trauma to the tissue surrounding the bone
- Artificial joints or hardware that has become infected
Thoroughly wash and clean any cuts or open wounds in the skin. If a wound/cut does not look like it is healing with home treatment, contact your doctor immediately to have it examined. Clean and dry amputation sites before placing your prosthesis. Also, use the proper footwear and protective equipment to avoid injuries when jumping, running, or participating in sports.
Most cases of osteomyelitis are treatable. Chronic infections of the bone, however, may take longer to treat and heal, especially if they require surgery. Treatment should be aggressive because an amputation can become necessary sometimes. The outlook for this condition is good if the infection is treated early.