What is polio?
Polio is a viral disease that can affect the spinal cord which causes muscle weakness and paralysis. Poliovirus passes through the mouth to the body, usually by the contaminated hands of the infected person. In infants and young children, polio is more common and in poor condition of cleanliness. Paralysis is more common and more serious when infection occurs in older people.
Who receives polio?
After the introduction of the polio vaccine in 1955 and the development of the national immunization program, dramatically reduced cases of polio in the United States. Most populations of the world live in areas free of wild poliovirus circulation. Travellers from countries where polio cases should still be known should know that they are immune or completely immunized. In 2008, these areas included Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Eastern Mediterranean Territory.
How does polio spread?
Polio is spread when the stool of an infected person is introduced into the mouth of another person through contaminated water or food (faecal-oral transmission). Oral transmission through the saliva of the infected person may be responsible for some cases.
How long is a person capable of spreading polio?
Patients are contagious seven to ten days before and after the onset of symptoms. However, until the virus is present in the throat and faeces, patients are potentially contagious. This disease persists in the neck for approximately one week after the onset of the disease and is excreted from stool for three to six weeks.
What are the symptoms of polio in the child?
Most children with polio have no symptoms. This is called an unwanted infection. Other types of polio are:
- Sterilized It is a mild illness that does not last long.
- Nonparalytic. It is also a mild illness that does not last long.
- Paralyzed This disease can cause serious symptoms and chronic problems.
How is poliomyelitis diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for poliomyelitis may include:
Testing of polio antibody levels
Lumbar pancake (spinal cord). A special needle is applied in the lower part of the spinal cord. This is the area around the spinal cord. A pressure in the spinal cord and the brain can be measured. A small amount of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) can be removed and sent to determine if there are any infections or other problems. CSF is fluid that bathes your child’s brain and spinal cord.
Finding a child’s history of not receiving polio vaccine or not completing a series of polio vaccines.
Is there any vaccine for polio?
There are two types of polio vaccines: the oral polio vaccine (TOPV) given by mouth, and inactive passive polio vaccine (IPV) given in the form of injection. Until January 2000, TOPV has not been recommended for vaccination in the United States. Recommended schedule IPV for childhood immunization should be given between two, four, and six to 18 months of age and between four to six years. Adults travelling in countries where polio cases are facing, to ensure that they are immune, their immunization status should be reviewed.
How can polio be prevented?
Maintaining high levels of polio vaccination in the community is one of the most effective preventive measures.
What is the post-polio syndrome (PPS)?
PPS is a condition that affects polio survivors for 10 to 40 years after recovery from the initial infection. PPS is characterized by muscular and weaknesses that were first affected by polio infection. Symptoms include fatigue, gradual progressive muscle weakness, and degradation. Joint pain and bone deformities are common. PPS usually life is not dangerous. There is no known cause or effective treatment for PPS.
Polio is used by laboratory testing (detecting poliovirus in faeces, or usually less than throat).
There is no specific treatment for polio. Caring for patients with polio involves ensuring adequate intake of fluid and bed comfort. Patients with severe symptoms may need specific treatment for their problem.
Results in specific lifelong immunity for poliovirus infection infected serotype (1, 2, or 3) The defence of a serotype does not generate significant immunity for other serotypes.
Polioviruses only infect humans. It is very contagious and spreads through contact individually. The virus stays in the throat and intestines of an infected person. It enters the body through the mouth and spreads through the contact of an infected person (POOP), however, it is less common through drops of sneezing or a cough. If you keep a stool on your hands and you touch your mouth you may be infected with poliovirus. Apart from this, if you contaminate your mouth objects with contaminated substances such as toys then you can get infected.
An infected person can spread the virus just before the appearance of symptoms and about 1 to 2 weeks before. The virus can remain in the stool of the infected person for several weeks. It can contaminate food and water in unwanted situations.