What are the kidney stones?
Apart from the kidney stones living inside the body, the obstruction of the tubes connecting the kidney to the bladder can also cause many complications, which inhibit the urine to use the body to leave the body.
Types of kidney stones
Not all kidney stones are made of the same crystal. Different types of kidney stones include:
Calcium stones are the most common. They are often made of calcium oxalate (although they may contain calcium phosphate or narrate). By eating less oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include:
However, although some kidney stones are made of calcium, yet your diet can be prevented from making enough stones to obtain stones.
This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They may be among people with arthritis or people going through chemotherapy. This type of stone develops when urine is very acidic. Prolonged diet in purines can increase the acidic level of urine. Purine is a colourless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish and meat.
This type of stone is mostly found in women with urinary tract infection (UTI). These stones can grow and cause urinary obstruction. They result from a kidney infection. Treatment of the underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.
Cystine stones are rare. They are both men and women whose genetic disorders are cystinuria. With this type of stone, cysteine – an acid that occurs naturally in the body – leaks into the urine from the kidneys.
Risk Factors for Kidney Stones
The biggest risk factor for kidney stones is making urine less than one litre per day. This is the reason that kidney problems are common among premature infants who have kidney problems. However, people of 20 to 50 years of age have more chances of kidney stones.
Different factors can increase your risk of stone development. Generally, compared to the African origin, chances of kidney stones are high in Caucasian.
Sex also plays a role. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK), more men develop kidney stone than women.
History of kidney stones can increase your risk. So kidney stones have a family history.
Other risk factors include:
High levels of protein, salt, or glucose diet
gastric bypass surgery
Inflammatory bowel disease that increases calcium absorption
Taking medicines like diuretic drugs, antisyazer drugs, and calcium-based antacids
Identifying the symptoms and symptoms of a kidney stone
Kidney stones are known due to severe pain. Signs of kidney stones cannot be there until the stones take down the urethra. This severe pain is called kidney black. You may have pain on one side of the back or abdomen.
In men, there may be radiation in the pain groin area. The pain of the kidney stomach comes and goes, but it can be intense. Those with kidneys are unhealthy.
Other symptoms of kidney stones can include:
Blood in urine (red, pink, or brown urine)
Deformed or bad odour urine
There is a continuous need to urinate
In the case of a small kidney stone, you can not have any pain or symptoms because the stone passes through your urinary tract.
Why can there be the problem in kidney stones
The stones do not always stay in the kidney. Sometimes they go from kidney to urine. The urates are small and delicate, and the stones can be very large to easily cross the urethra to the bladder. The passage of stones beneath the urate can cause urinary spasm and irritation. It shows blood in the urine.
Testing and diagnosing kidney stones
The diagnosis of kidney stones requires a complete health history assessment and physical examination. Other tests include:
Blood tests for calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolytes
To assess the function of the kidney, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine
Urethra to examine crystal, bacteria, blood, and white cells
Examination of stones passed to determine your type
Can cancel the following test constraints:
Intravenous pilot (IVP)
Kidney ultrasound (preferred study)
MRI scan of stomach and kidney
Belly CT scan
Contrast diets used in CT scans and IVPs can affect kidney function. However, in people with normal kidney function, this is no concern.
There are some medicines which can increase the likelihood of kidney damage in combination with dye. Make sure your radiologist knows about any medication you are taking.
How kidney stones are treated
Treatment is made according to the type of stone. Urine can be pressed for stress and stones can be collected for evaluation.
Drinking six to eight glasses of water a day increases urine flow. People who are dehydrated or severe nausea and vomiting may need intravenous fluid.
Other treatment options include:
Drug remedies may be needed to relieve pain. The presence of infection requires treatment with antibiotics. Other medicines include:
- Allopurinol (Zyloprim) for uric acid stones
- Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate
- Phosphorus solution
- Ibuprofen (Advil)
Extracooperative shock wave lithotripsy uses sound waves to break large stones so they can easily pass urine in your bladder. This process can be uncomfortable and may require minor anaesthesia. It can hurt the stomach and bleed around the kidneys and surrounding organs.
Tunnelling surgery (percutaneous nephrolithotomy)
The stones are removed in your back through a small incision. This process may be needed when:
- Stone causes obstruction and infections or harms the kidneys
- The stone is too big to pass
- Pain cannot be controlled
When a stone is trapped in the urine or bladder, then your doctor can use a device called ureteroscope to remove it. A small wire connected to the camera is inserted into the urethra and passed into the urinary bladder. Then the doctor uses a small cage to snatch the stone and remove it. The stone is sent to the laboratory for analysis.
Kidney stone prevention
Proper hydration is an important preventive measure. An increase in the amount of urine passed by you helps the kidney flush.
You can replace ginger alley, lemon-lemon soda, and fruit juice for water to help you increase your fluid intake. If stones are related to low citrate levels, then citrate juice can help stop the formation of stones.
Eating rich foods rich in oxalate and reducing intake of salt and animal protein can also reduce the risk of kidney stones.