What are Bacteria?
Bacteria are microscopic single-cell organisms that grow in diverse environments. They can live within the soil, in the sea and inside the human intestine. Human relationships with bacteria are complex. Sometimes they lend a supportive hand by suppressing milk in yoghurt or helping our digestion. The second time, they are destructive, causing diseases such as pneumonia and MRSA.
Based on the relative complexity of their cells, all living organisms are widely classified as prokaryotes or eukaryotes.
Bacteria are prokaryotes. The whole organism has a single cell with a simple internal structure. Unlike eukaryotic DNA, which is well packed in a cellular compartment called Nucleus, the bacterial DNA is released, called a nucleoid in a twisted thread-like mass.
Some different criteria are used to classify the bacteria. They can be isolated from the nature of their cell walls, their size, or their genetic make-up.
Village stain is a test that is used to identify the bacteria with the structure of their cell walls. Its name is named for Hans Christian Gram, which developed the technique in 1884. For the first time, bacteria are stained with a purple dye named Crystal Violet, which binds a complex structure of amino acids and sugars found specifically in the cell wall with peptidoglycan. After this, there is a series of steps that ultimately removes any unbound or lose bound crystal purple.
The classification criteria described so far are based on physical properties and morphology. However, the classification of bacteria is for each other on the basis of their evolutionary relations, which says, portraying the family tree of all bacterial species is a relatively new development. With the advent of nucleotide sequence technology (the ability to read the order of nucleotide in DNA or RNA), this type of phylogenetic classification was made possible. Since ribosomes are present in all living organisms, therefore, any RNA sequences can see similarities and differences, which encode some ribosomal proteins and determine the degree of relativeness of different organisms.
Most bacteria multiply by a process called binary fission. A bacterial cell, “parent”, creates a copy of its DNA and grows in size by doubling its cellular content. Double content is pushed to an end of the cell. Then a small fisher emerges in the centre of the parent, eventually dividing it into two equal “daughter” cells. Some bacterial species such as cyanobacteria and pharmacists make emerging reproduction. During emergence, daughter cell increases as a parent’s parent branch. It starts in the form of a small nab, until it is not shaped like your parents, and separates.
Bacterial Cell: –
Bacteria as prokaryotes
All living organisms on earth are one of two basic types of cells: eukaryotic cells, where genetic material is attached within an atomic membrane, or prokaryotic cells, in which the genetic material is not separate from the remaining cells. Traditionally, all the prokaryotic cells were called bacteria and they were classified in the Procuratory Empire Monera.
Prokaryotic cells (i.e., Bacteria and Arcia) are basically different from eukaryotic cells that constitute other forms of life. Prokaryotic cells are defined by a very simple design found in eukaryotic cells. The most obvious simplification is the lack of intracellular organisms, in which the characteristics of eukaryotic cells.
How do bacterial reproduction?
Bacterial reproduction by binary fragmentation. In this process, the bacterium, which is a single cell, is divided into two equal daughter cells. Binary fragmentation begins when the DNA of the bacteria is divided into two (transcript). The bacterial cell is expanded and each daughter is divided into cells, each of which has the same DNA as the original cell. Each daughter is a clone of the cell origin cell.
Some bacteria can make endospores. These are passive structures, which are highly resistant to hostile physical and chemical conditions such as heat, UV radiation and disinfectant. This destroys them very difficult. Many endospore-producing bacteria are bad pathogenic, for example, the cause of Bacillus anthracite anthrax.